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European Scientific Journal June 2014 /SPECIAL/ edition vol.2 ISSN: 1857 - 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857-7431 


EDWARD SAID: THE POSTCOLONIAL THEORY 
AND THE LITERATURE OF DECOLONIZATION 


Lutfi Hamadi, PhD 

Lebanese International University, Lebanon 


Abstract 

This paper attempts an exploration of the literary theory of postcolonialism, which 
traces European colonialism of many regions all over the world, its effects on various aspects 
of the lives of the colonized people and its manifestations in the Western literary and 
philosophical heritage. Shedding light on the impact of this theory in the field of literary 
criticism, the paper focuses on Edward Said's views for the simple reason that he is considered 
the one who laid the cornerstone of this theory, despite the undeniable role of other leading 
figures. 

This theory is mainly based on what Said considers the false image of the Orient fabricated by 
Western thinkers as the primitive "other" in contrast with the civilized West. He believes that 
the consequences of colonialism are still persisting in the form of chaos, coups, corruption, 
civil wars, and bloodshed, which permeates many ex-colonies. The powerful colonizer has 
imposed a language and a culture, whereas those of the Oriental peoples have been ignored or 
distorted. 

Referring to some works of colonial and postcolonial novelists, the paper shows how being 
free from the repression of imperialism, the natives could, eventually, produce their own 
culture of opposition, build their own image, and write their history outside the frame they 
have for long been put into. With such writers, Conrad’s Heart of Darkness can never be read 
the same after Achebe’s criticism, nor can Bronte’s Jane Eyre after Jean Rhys’s postcolonial 
parallel novel Wide Sargasso Sea. 

Keywords: Postcolonialism, literary theory, colonial discourse, decolonization literature 

Introduction 

This paper attempts an exploration of postcolonialism, a literary theory, which traces 
European colonialism of many regions all over the world, its effects on various aspects of the 
lives of the colonized people in general, and its manifestations in Western literary and 
philosophical heritage in particular throughout the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries, in 
addition to the emergence of the literature of opposition and resistance in the ex-colonies. The 
purpose of this study is to shed light on this theory and the remarkable impact it has left in the 
field of literary criticism. The paper will focus on Edward Said's views and ideas by exploring 
his most important books and articles, for the simple reason that Said is considered the one 
who laid the cornerstone of this theory, despite the importance of other leading figures such as 
Gayatri Spivak and Homi Bhabha in this respect. Edward Said, the Palestinian American, and 
the notable academic and lecturer, had been the professor of comparative literature at 
Colombia University for a long time until his death of leukemia in 2003. Said's name came to 
light when his book Orientalism was published in 1978 and laid the ground for the theory of 
postcolonialism, sparking a storm of controversy, which didn't die with Said's decease. 


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i 

Said's theory of postcolonialism is mainly based on what he considers the false image 
of the Orient or the East that has been fabricated by western explorers, poets, novelists, 
philosophers, political theorists, economists, and imperial administrators since Napoleon's 
occupation of Egypt in 1798. According to Said, these have always shown the Orient as the 
primitive, uncivilized "other", in an attempt to create it as the contrast to the advanced and 
civilized West. In his highly influential work, Orientalism, Said considers that "Orientalism is 
a style of thought based upon an ontological and epistemological distinction made between 
"the Orient" and (most of the time) "the Occident". Said believes that such discourse has been 
used either in preparation to military campaigns and colonialism against the Orient, or as a 
justification for the occupations and horrors that accompany them. He goes further, 
contending that it is quite misleading to consider that such horrors came to an end with the 
end of direct colonialism. On the contrary, he believes that the consequences of colonialism 
are still persisting in the form of chaos, coups, corruption, civil wars, and bloodshed, which 
pervade many of these countries, mainly because of the residues of colonization. In this 
respect, Said believes that a powerful colonizer has imposed a language and a culture, 
whereas cultures, histories, values, and languages of the Oriental peoples have been ignored 
and even distorted by the colonialists in their pursuit to dominate these peoples and exploit 
their wealth in the name of enlightening, civilizing, and even humanizing them. What seems 
to be so infuriating to Said is that such peoples, who, in most cases have completely different 
cultures, have always been stereotyped by the so-called Orientalists, who so simply cross out 
all the distinctions and national characteristics of these diverse cultures. Consequently, the 
colonial texts have depicted the Indians, the Egyptians, the Palestinians, the Latin Americans, 
and many others as almost the same, the Orient, the "Other", in juxtaposition with "Us", the 
Occidental. 

It is true that Edward Said was not the first to write on and criticize Western 
Orientalilsm, as he himself admits in his article "Orientalism Reconsidered", published in 
Diana Bry den's Postcolonialism (846). However, in Orientalism, Said, by most accounts, 
revolutionized the literary field and laid the ground for postcolonial theory, creating an 
unprecedented dispute in the Academic circles in the West and East alike. According to The 
Economist, "Orientalism, translated into dozens of languages, became a foundation text for a 
great boom in post-colonial studies." 

Orientalism, together with his later works, represents Said's vehement commitment to 
speaking truth to power, to uncovering the grave oppression and persecution practiced against 
the colonized peoples by imperialism and colonial discourse. He describes the way the 
imperial West has always seen the Orient and how this view is obvious not only in many texts 
written by early travelers and explorers, but also in important literary works of prominent 
writers. Because there would be no limit to the narrative history of Orientalism, Said 
emphasizes in his study on "the Anglo-French-American experience of the Arabs and Islam, 
which for almost a thousand years together stood for the Orient" (17). In this sense, Said 
defines Orientalism as "a distribution of geopolitical awareness into aesthetic, scholarly 
discovery, philological reconstruction, psychological analysis, landscape and sociological 
description, ... about what 'we' do and what 'they' cannot do" (12) Said argues that what has 
been written about the East is no more than false assumptions upon which the Western 
attitudes toward the East were built, justifying and encouraging the European and American 
colonial and imperial behavior towards the Arab-Islamic peoples and their cultures. Said sees 
that the long European colonial rule of the East has negatively influenced the most seemingly 
objective texts on the East even those written by the most knowledgeable and well-meaning 
Western Orientalists. These texts, according to Said, are highly biased, depicting the Orient as 
irrational, strange, weak, feminized "Other", contrasted with the rational, familiar, strong, 

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masculine West. He affirms that the West needs to show this difference so that it would 
legalize the domination of the superior "civilized" West over the inferior "primitive" East. He 
concludes that "The relationship between Occident and Orient is a relationship of power, of 
domination, of varying degrees of a complex hegemony" (5). In The Empire Writes Back 
Ashcroft, Griffiths, and Tiffin support Said's idea of the condescending view the West has 
always seen the Orient through, by showing how Africa and Africans, for example, appear in 
the eyes of Western writers and thinkers as not only the primitive and demonic "opposite to 
the angels of reason and culture" but even to the extent that "Hegel could define the continent 
as being " 'outside history' " (159). 

Said goes further to emphasize that, unfortunately, the standardized molds and 
culturally stereotyped images of the Orient still permeate the Western media, academia, and 
political circles, thus intensifying "the hold of the nineteenth-century academic and 
imaginative demonology of 'the mysterious Orient' " ( Orientalism 26). In short, the 
Orientalists’ effort to obliterate the Oriental as a human being is, for Said, important both 
academically and intellectually, and it is totally wrong to separate literature and culture from 
politics and history, thus the necessity to study and understand society and literary culture 
together. 

That is why Said refers to specific examples of books written by Orientalists and 
analyzes them in a detailed study, showing how these supposedly subtle works of art have not 
only distorted the East with its values, cultures, traditions and languages, but also encouraged, 
overtly or covertly, the dispossession process the imperial West has practiced against the East. 
In other words, the Western fabricated image of the Orient was a preface and a reinforcement 
of the Western imperial rule over the Orient. 

It is worth mentioning that Said's criticism in Orientalism is not restricted to Western 
colonialism and Orientalism, but he equally and harshly attacks the practices of Arab elites 
who internalized the American and British orientalists' ideas of Arabic culture. This definitely 
was the case of the literary elite in other ex-colonies. In her landmark essay "Can the 
Subaltern Speak?", Gayatri Spivak deals with the problem of "how the third world subject is 
represented within Western discourse" (Brydon 1427). She shows that even now the 
powerless are unable to express themselves, and that the experiences of such groups are 
inevitably distorted by the perspectives of the elite, such as academics, who are describing 
them. According to her "Certain varieties of the Indian elite are at best native informants for 
first world intellectuals interested in the voice of the Other. But one must nevertheless insist 
that the colonized subaltern subject is irretrievably heterogenous" (1442). 

According to Said, the present is a mirror to the past, and it would be absolutely 
gullible to study it ignoring the role played by the colonialists in forming this present. 
Consequently, Said contends, both histories of the colonizer and the colonized are inextricably 
interrelated and cannot be studied from a unilateral point of view. To justify his claims that 
literary texts are tools used by colonialism, and that these misleading texts have always 
distorted the image of the Orient, Said goes back in Orientalism to Aeschylus's The Persians 
and Euripides's The Bacchae , picking evidence to show how both works depict Asia as the 
hostile destructive “‘other’ world beyond the seas" ( Orientalism 56). Other writers Said 
studies in details are Silvestre de Sacy, whose works have been used later as references in 
studies of the Orient, and Ernest Renan, whose study of philology in general and Semitic 
languages in particular leads him to the conclusion that the European prose "points out 
defects, virtues, barbarisms, and shortcomings in the language, the people, and the 
civilization"(142) of the Orient, and that "Semitic is not a live language, and ... neither are 
Semites live creatures" (145). In the last chapter entitled "Orientalism Now", Said draws a 
comparison between Conrad's Marlow and Lamartine, pointing to the fact that both talk about 
"blank spaces on the earth" (216), while these blank spaces were inhabited by natives." Such 
writings continued in the twentieth century by T.E. Lawrence and Gertrude Bell, whose image 

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of the Arabs is that of primitiveness and lack of wisdom. Said shows how such writers' 
Eurocentrism and ethnocentrism were, ironically enough, directed against both the Muslims 
and the Jews. (241) 

In an article entitled "Islam through Western Eyes" published in The Nation two years 
after Orientalism , Said emphasizes his ideas of the distorted image of Islam in the West's texts 
and media, shedding more light on how Islam is seen as a threat of a return to the Middle 
Ages and a danger to the democratic order in the West. In this article, Said reasserts his point 
in Orientalism that the same mistake made by the past Orientalists is repeated now by blindly 
generalizing all the Muslims and by simply classifying them into good or bad Muslims. He 
wonders how the scientific progress and objective research in the West, mainly in the States, 
hasn't included Orientalism, where Orientalists are still biased, but the reason, to him, is, after 
all, a political one. 

In Culture and Imperialism , a sequel to Orientalism , Said projects a new light on the 
interwoven connections between the imperial enterprise and the culture that reflects and 
strengthens it. He extends his study to colonization in parts of the world other than the Middle 
East, namely India, African countries, Caribbean Islands and Australia. Analyzing more 
works of literature such as Kipling's Kim, Austen's Mansfield Park, Conrad's Heart of 
Darkness, and Verdi's Aida, Said emphasizes the inseparability between the history of the 
empire and the great works of literature written in that era. That is to say, Said illustrates the 
intertwined relationship between literature and the life of its time. In fact, this relationship 
between literature and the Imperial endeavor has been emphasized by many other writers. In 
"Can the Subaltern Speak", Spivak assures that "Western intellectual production is, in many 
ways, complicit with Western international economic interests" (Bryden 1427). Not unlike 
Said or Spivak, Elleke Boehmer, in In Colonial and Postcolonial Literature, argues that, 
among other functions, literature in a way reflects the social and historical moment. Boehmer 
defines the colonial literature as that which was "written by and for colonizing Europeans 
about non-European lands dominated by them... Colonialist literature was informed by 
theories concerning the superiority of European culture and the rightness of empire" (3). 

To achieve his study of the modem Western Empires of the nineteenth and twentieth 
centuries, and to shed more light on the relationship between culture and imperialism, Said 
has chosen the novel because it plays an important role in "the formation of imperial attitudes, 
references, and experiences," and it has "also become the method colonized people use to 
assert their own identity and the existence of their own history" (xii). To clarify his point, Said 
studies both, colonialist's literature and what he calls literature of opposition and resistance. 

Concerning the former, Said refers to Conrad's Nostromo, quoting Holroyd, an 
American financier who supports Charles Gould, the British owner of a mine in a Central 
American republic, saying what resonates with the discourse of the New World Order, "We 
shall run the world's business whether the world likes it or not." (xvii). Said notices that in 
Nostromo as well as in Heart of Darkness, Conrad is anti-imperialist when he uncovers and 
criticizes “the corruption of overseas domination, [but] "deeply reactionary when it came to 
conceding that Africa or South America could ever have had an independent history or 
culture" (xviii). 

After a thorough study of Austen's Mansfield Park, Said insists that Austen's works, as 
well as other great writers', should be read not only as creative works of artistic talents, but 
because they are so, they require "that longer and slower analysis" (96) so that we can see 
beyond the "dead silence" that the slave trade is met with in Mansfield Park. He concludes 
that by "reading it carefully, we can sense how ideas about dependent races and territories 
were held both by foreign-office executives, colonial bureaucrats, and military strategists and 
by intelligent novel-readers educating themselves in the fine points of moral evaluation, 
literary balance, and stylistic finish" (95). Among the seemingly endless examples Said 
mentions to illustrate his point is Andre Gide's novel L'lmmoraliste in which Michel, the 

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narrator, degrades the Arabs by choosing French Algeria to satisfy his suppressed instincts, 
seeing it, "a place of deserts, languorous oases, amoral native boys and girls" (192). 

Similarly, Boehmer analyzes Conrad's Lord Jim to reach almost Said's conclusions. 
Although Jim was a flawed protagonist, he was given another chance to prove his manhood 
and heroism on a lesser type of human beings, the natives in the Malayan archipelago. 
Showing colonialism as problematic as it is in Heart of Darkness ~ a failing project - doesn't 
prevent the novel from showing the real image the colonialists have of the colonized. 
Boehmer asserts that the novel is in fact about the Europeans, where "the non-European 
environment plays a part in the narrative only in so far as it corrupts” (66). Boehmer adds that 
"Always with reference to the superiority of an expanding Europe, colonized peoples were 
represented as lesser, less human, less civilized, as child or savage, wild man, animal, or 
headless mass" (79). According to Boehmer, both Conrad and Kipling "subscribed to theories 
of racial difference and supremacy, manifested in the main as the hierarchies of command 
which dominate their narratives. Despite his failings, Marlow sees Lord Jim as possessing an 
internal nobility and quality of leadership that distinguishes him from the people of Patusan" 
(86). Like Said, Boehmer even believes that such literary works took Western values for their 
standards of success, where the colonialists define themselves not only as superior but also as 
masculine keeping in mind that " masculinity characterized colonialist action" (63). 

Similar to Said and Boehmer, Gayatri Spivak agrees that there is a severe need to 
reread European literature, having in mind that this literature, mainly that of the 19 th century, 
reflects imperialism, which was part of the cultural representation of the empire. In her 
notable essay "Three Women's Texts and a Critique of Imperialism", she argues that "The role 
of literature in the production of cultural representation should not be ignored" (694). 
Examining Charlotte Bronte's famous novel Jane Eyre , Spivak believes that although this 
novel portrays Jane as a new feminist ideal, the study of the novel in this process disguises the 
attempt of the novel to naturalize Western dominance, thus Spivak's belief that Bertha, the 
Jamaican, functions as the "other" juxtaposed with the novel’s protagonist with whom the 
reader sympathizes and limitlessly supports. In fact, Spivak's analysis of Jane Eyre , very 
much like Said's of Kim , and Boehmer's of Lord Jim , reaches a conclusion that Bertha Mason 
is "a figure produced by the axiomatics of imperialism" (698). 

On the other hand, Said admits in Culture and Imperialism that as there has always 
been colonial literature, a literature of opposition and decolonization started to appear 
reflecting opposition to the empire in the center as well as nationalist resistance in the 
peripheral. He believes that "Here, too, culture is in advance of politics, military history, or 
economic process... Just as culture may predispose and actively prepare one society for the 
overseas domination of another, it may also prepare that society to relinquish or modify the 
idea of overseas domination" (200). One example Said cites here is Forster's A Passage to 
India, in which, though modest, opposition to the empire is represented in both Aziz, the 
Muslim nationalist, and Godbole, the surrealistic Hindu, and to some extent, in Fielding, the 
British. Said finds that "At least Fielding can connect with a character like Aziz," and 
concludes that despite seeing India "unapprehendable," he still could make the reader "feel 
affection for and even intimacy with some Indians and India generally" (205). Said shows that 
sympathizing with a resisting nationalism appeared more explicitly in types of writing other 
than the novel. To prove that, Said refers to Edward Thompson, whose subject is 
misrepresentation, saying that Indians "see the English entirely through the experience of 
British brutality during the 1857 'mutiny'. The English, with the pompous, cold-blooded 
religiosity of the Raj at its worst, see Indians and their history as barbaric, uncivilized, 
inhuman" (206). 

This leads Said to study the themes of resistance culture, showing how the natives 
could, eventually, produce their own vigorous culture of opposition. In this respect, in an 
article on Edward Said published in Prospect magazine, David Herman believes that "long 

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before most other critics in America, [Said] had discovered a new set of thinkers who had 
written about colonialism, race and identity [among whom] are CLR James, Tagore, and 
Fanon and he put their insights together with the work of a later generation of postcolonial 
writers and theorists, including Henry Louis Gates, the Subaltern studies group, Rushdie and 
Marquez, Achebe and Mahfouz (2). Writers of the "margin" could speak free from the 
suppression and repression of imperialism, so Conrad's snake-like river that leads to nowhere 
but to primitiveness, corruption, and annihilation in Heart of Darkness is Honia in Ngugi Wa 
Thiongo's The River Between, a river of cure, which "seemed to possess a strong will to live, 
scorning droughts and weather changes" {Culture & Imperialism 211). Again Conrad's river 
becomes the Nile in Tayeb Salih's Season of Migration to the North , where Kurtz's voyage is 
reversed and Mostapha Said, metaphorically speaking, conquers the West, coming from the 
Sudanese countryside. Said makes it clear that "The post-imperial writers of the Third World 
therefore bear their past within them — as scars of humiliating wounds ....as urgently 
reinterpretable and redeployable experiences in which the formerly silent native speaks "(2 12). 
In this respect, in his article "Postcolonial Criticism", Homi Bhabha, assures that despite all 
attempts of repression, "it is from those who have suffered the sentence of history - 
subjugation, domination, diaspora, displacement - that we learn our most enduring lessons for 
living and thinking"(106). Said’s emphasis is on how more importance should be given to the 
references to the colonial world made in this great literature. According to Ashcroft in The 
Empire Writes Back, this postcolonial literature gains its significance from the fact that it 
reflects the influence of colonialism on "more than three-quarters of the people of the world 
today", as these people "have had their lives shaped by the experience of colonialism" (1) in a 
way or another. These peoples have had the chance for the first time to write about 
themselves, to speak of themselves outside the frame they have for long been put into and 
given an image which is no more than a fabrication imposed on the them by the powerful 
empire. In response to the colonial discourse, these writers show that the natives did have a 
culture and a language before colonization, and, like all human beings, they had their 
strengths and flaws. Unlike the colonial texts, these writers do not stereotype even the 
Western characters in their works. In Achebe’ s Things Fall Apart, for example, we see two 
completely different missionaries, the understanding, non-violent Mr. Brown versus the strict, 
intolerant Mr. Smith. Similarly, Kamala Markandaya introduces Dr. Kenny in her Nectar in a 
Sieve, who dedicates his life to help the impoverished Indians juxtaposed with the merciless 
white owners of the tannery. Analyzing several other writers from different regions of the 
Third World including Tagore, Achebe and even Yeats, Said concludes that "no one today is 
purely one thing" and that ethnicity, gender, religion or nationality is just a starting point, thus 
his call to stop ruling, classifying, or putting people into hierarchies and "For the intellectual 
there is quite enough of value to do without that " ( Culture & Imperialism 336). 

What Said emphasizes in Culture and Imperialism, as well as in other books and 
articles, is not accusing such talented writers like Conrad or Austen, because after all, he 
believes, they are creatures of their time. Nor does he write to blame those who were once 
responsible for the bloodshed and horrors caused by the empire and colonization. In fact, what 
he calls for is a different reading of those literary works as great products of imagination and 
as a part of relationship between culture and empire, more realistic understanding of the 
relation between the colonizer and the colonized, and an objective look at the historical 
experience of empire as common to both," Indians and Britishers, Algerians and French, 
Westerners and Africans Asians, Latin Americans, and Australians despite the horrors, the 
bloodshed, and the vengeful bitterness" (xxii). 

In summary, being highly controversial, as mentioned above, Said's ideas have gained 
countless adherents and even followers to the extent that Paul Bove, in his Intellectuals in 
Power, places Said at the level of thinkers like Nietzsche, Foucault, Auerbach and others. But, 


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on the other hand, Said's views have aroused the rage of many opponents, who spare no effort 
to raise suspicions around him and attack his views. 

As a matter of fact, Said's works, mainly Orientalism, have been harshly criticized on 
different grounds. Paradoxically, Said and his colleagues of postcolonialism have been 
attacked by critics of the left as well as those of the right. Marxist writers such as Aijaz 
Ahmad, Terry Eagleton, and Sana Haque sometimes go to the extent of accusing them of 
complicity with the American cultural Imperialism. On the other hand, academic Orientalists, 
whom Said has seen as spokespeople of the empire, consider that it is unreasonable that Said 
attacks the West while he enjoys the privileges of this West, and accuse him of taking the 
Palestinian cause as a cover to introduce himself the victim he has never been. Among these 
are Bernard Lewis, Albert Hourani, and Nikki Kiddie. Some other opponents have gone too 
far to accuse him of encouraging terror, ignoring all his secular discourse and call for a 
humanistic approach and a constructive mutual understanding, not conflict, between different 
cultures. In his attack on Said in his article “Enough Said”, David Pryce-Jones, ironically 
enough, agrees on what clearly supports Said’s assertion of the inferiority the East has always 
been looked upon in the West. He quotes what he calls Ibn Warraq’s “lapidary judgements” 
that “Only the West seems to have developed the notion that the natural world is a rational 
and ordered universe, that man is a rational creature who is able to understand, without the aid 
of revelation, or spiritual agencies, and able to describe that universe and grasp the laws that 
govern it.” Price-Jones comments that “Rationalism, universalism, and self-inspection are 
Western traits which expand civilization.” Trying to cast doubts on what he calls “Said’s 
claims to be a Palestinian, dispossessed by Zionist Jews, therefore an archetypal Third World 
victim,” he, finally, reaches the conclusion that “On the pretext of victimhood, but from the 
safety of New York, [Said] urged others to kill and be killed” (3). Stanley Kurtz, in his turn, 
remarks after a prolonged attack on Edward Said in “The Hegemonic Impulse of Post- 
colonialism” in The Weekly Standard that “Like the terrorists themselves, the post-colonial 
theorists have long found comfort and solidarity in blaming both American power and a fast- 
fading band of traditionalist scholars for the complex ills of the Muslim world” (1) 

However, according to his countless supporters, among whom are Nicholas Dirks, 
Gyan Prakash, and Ronald Inden, it seems that the West has not been ready enough to accept 
his revolutionary theory, which projects a new light on the West's discourse and requires a 
radical reconsideration of the way many of the classics of the empire have been read. 

It is important to mention here Said's view in lecture one of Representations of an 
Intellectual that an intellectual’s mission is to speak truth to power, “to confront orthodoxy 
and dogma (rather than to produce them), to be someone who cannot easily be co-opted by 
governments or corporations, and whose raison d’etre is to represent all those people and 
issues who are routinely forgotten or swept under the rug” (4). According to his supporters, 
Said had always been a true intellectual who did all that. After exploring Said’s successes and 
failures, David Herman concludes that “It is only fair to say that the achievements were his 
alone, but the silences and failures are shared by many” (49). 

Conclusion 

No matter what, Although Chinua Achebe's essay “An Image of Africa” on Joseph 
Conrad's Heart of Darkness exploded a storm of protests and denunciation in the Western 
literary circles, still, there is almost a consensus that the novel will never be read again 
secluded from Achebe's views. Likewise, it seems certain that a critical reading of the literary 
heritage of both the West and the Orient can never be comprehensive without Edward Said's 
legacy, a legacy that both supporters and critics acknowledge the profound influence it has 
had in the field of humanities, a legacy that will always be seen as a form of intellectual 
resistance against the hegemony of the empire reflected in both popular representations and 
misinterpretations of the Orient in the Western culture, mainly in the United States. 


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References: 

Ashcroft, Bill, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Fiffin. The Empire Writes Back: Theory and 
Practice in Post-Colonial Literatures. London and New York: Routledge, 1989. 

Bhabha, Homi. “Postcolonial Criticism.” Ed. Bryden. Vol I. 105-133 

Boehmer, Elleke. Colonial and Postcolonial Literature. Oxford University Press, 2005. 

Bove, Paul A. Intellectuals in Power: the Genealogy of Critical Humanism. New York: 
Columbia University Press, 1986. 

Brydon, Diana ed. And introduction. Postcolonialism: Critical Concepts in Literary and 
Cultural Studies. 5 vols. New York: Routledge, 2006 

Herman, David. “Edward Said.” Prospect Magazine, <http:// www.prospectmagazine.co.uk > 
20 Nov. 2003. 1 1 October, 2013. 

Kurtz, Stanley. “The hegemonic impulse of post-colonialism.” The Weekly Standard. 

Vol. 7, No. 04. 10 Aug. 2001. 23 July, 2012 
<http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles> 

Price-Jones, David. “Enough Said”. The New Criterion. Vol. P 60. 

< http://www.newcriterion.com/articles.cfm/enough-said-3743>. 26 January 2008. 5 

April, 2013. 

Edward Said Culture and Imperialism. New York: Vintage, 1994. "Islam Through Western 
Eyes." The Nation, ed. April 26 1980. 488-492 
<http://www.thenation.com> 1 Jan. 1998. 10 May, 2012 
Orientalism. New York: Pantheon Books, 1978. 

“Orientalism Reconsidered.” Ed. Brydon. Vol III. 2001. 846-861 
"Orientalism 25 Years Later: Worldly Humanism vs. the Empire Builders.” 

Counterpunch . <http:// www.counterpunch.org/said08052003.html> 5 August, 2003. 6 
January, 2012. Representations of an Intellectual. 

<http://downloads.bbc.co.uk/rmhttp/radio4/transcripts/1993_reithl.pdf> June, 1993. 3 May, 
2012 . 

Spivak, Gayatri. "Can the Subaltern Speak?" Ed. Bryden. Vol IV. 1427-1618 
Three Women’s Texts and a Critique of Imperialism”. Ed. Bryden. Vol n. 694-713 
The Economist . “Edward Said” < http://www.economist.com > 2 Oct., 2003. 6 Jan 2012 


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